Let's start with the Sophienkirche.
The story of this church started in the year 1272, when the Franciscans built a monastery (Franziskanerkloster) in the arounds of the city walls and what was to become the Dresden Castle. In the first half of the 14th century, the first structure was demolished, and a new, larger one was built, with the distinctive two choir areas.
Around 1541, in the time of the Reformation, the monastery was abolished and the Franciscans left the place. The building stood empty until it was reopened as a Lutheran church by Sophie of Brandenburg in 1610. In the following century, the Sophienkirche also became the city's Evangelical court church (Evangelische Hofkirche). Another change around the same time was the installation of a Silbermann pipe organ between 1718 and 1720, in which Bach probably performed (It shoud be noted that his son Wilhelm Friedemann was organist in the church from 1733).
Starting from 2009, a memorial has been under construction. Resembling the Busmannkapelle, it's scheduled to be finished this year, although no project for the church as a whole has been planned yet.